The Collector listens on these ports:

162 UDP for SNMP traps
514 UDP for SysLog traps
2055 UDP for Netflow
6343 UDP for Sflow
2056 UDP for jflow

‘within’ the collector:

7211 TCP Watchdog service (sbwinproxy.exe)
7212 TCP Collector Service (java.exe)
7213 TCP Watchdog service (java.exe)
7214 TCP Collector Service (java.exe)
31000 TCP Collector service (java.exe) establishes connection with wrapper.exe
31001+ TCP Watchdog service (java.exe) establishes connection with wrapper.exe

Common outbound ports:

135 TCP for Windows. Unfortunately after initial connection it uses one other port between 1000-65000 (This is decided on the fly but you can lock it down to TCP 24158 or with more clicks you can specify any port)
22 TCP for SSH connections
80 TCP for HTTP
443 TCP for HTTPS
25 TCP for SMTP (email)
161 UDP for SNMP
1433 TCP for Microsoft SQL
1521 TCP for Oracle
3306 TCP for MySQL
5432 TCP for PostgreSQL
Various both for various apps like JMX or other